Scientific Publications

L. Nespoli, & V. Medici (2018). Constrained hierarchical networked optimization for energy markets

In this paper, we propose a distributed control strategy for the design of an energy market. The method relies on a hierarchical structure of aggregators for the coordination of prosumers (agents which can produce and consume energy). The hierarchy reflects the voltage level separations of the electrical grid and allows aggregating prosumers in pools, while taking into account the grid operational constraints. To reach optimal coordination, the prosumers communicate their forecasted power profile to the upper level of the hierarchy. Each time the information crosses upwards a level of the hierarchy, it is first aggregated, both to strongly reduce the data flow and to preserve the privacy. In the first part of the paper, the decomposition algorithm, which is based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), is presented. In the second part, we explore how the proposed algorithm scales with increasing number of prosumers and hierarchical levels, through extensive simulations based on randomly generated scenarios.

The article is available on

L. Nespoli, M. Salani, & V. Medici (2018). A rational decentralized generalized Nash equilibrium seeking for energy markets

We propose a method to design a decentralized energy market which guarantees individual rationality (IR) in expectation, in the presence of system-level grid constraints. We formulate the market as a welfare maximization problem subject to IR constraints, and we make use of Lagrangian duality to model the problem as a n-person non-cooperative game with a unique generalized Nash equilibrium (GNE). We provide a distributed algorithm which converges to the GNE. The convergence and properties of the algorithm are investigated by means of numerical simulations.

The article is available on


Press Releases

Trustless coordination mechanism for smart grid energy markets, a game theoretic approach

June 2018: Find a blog post on the hive power platform here.

Smart local grids with blockchain - sonnen is participating in the NEMoGrid project

Wildpoldsried, 14 March 2018 - sonnen is continuing to promote the use of blockchain technology in the energy sector and as part of its efforts is participating in the EU NEMoGrid project. Various companies and research institutes from Germany, Switzerland and Sweden are taking part.

Read the whole article here.

Energiehandel per Blockchain

Mit der Teilnahme an dem EU-Projekt NEMoGrid möchte Sonnen den Einsatz der Blockchain-Technologie im Energiesektor weiter vorantreiben. Daran nehmen verschiedene Unternehmen und Forschungseinrichtungen aus Deutschland, der Schweiz und Schweden teil.

Hier gehts zum vollständigen Artikel.